Nissan has admitted to falsifying emissions data, although it hasn’t specified how many vehicles were affected or whether it impacts cars outside Japan, per the BBC. It’s the second scandal in recent months for the automaker, which revealed in September that it had allowed unauthorized technicians to test cars. Over a million vehicles were recalled for reinspection. This latest announcement comes after an emissions scandal at Volkswagen that cost the German carmaker over $30 billion (BBC).
Types of emissions
Emissions of many air pollutants have been shown to have variety of negative effects on public health and the natural environment. Emissions that are principal pollutants of concern include:
Hydrocarbons (HC) – A class of burned or partially burned fuel, hydrocarbons are toxins. Hydrocarbons are a major contributor to smog, which can be a major problem in urban areas. Prolonged exposure to hydrocarbons contributes to asthma, liver disease, lung disease, and cancer. Regulations governing hydrocarbons vary according to type of engine and jurisdiction; in some cases, “non-methane hydrocarbons” are regulated, while in other cases, “total hydrocarbons” are regulated. Technology for one application (to meet a non-methane hydrocarbon standard) may not be suitable for use in an application that has to meet a total hydrocarbon standard. Methane is not directly toxic, but is more difficult to break down in fuel vent lines and a charcoal canister is meant to collect and contain fuel vapors and route them either back to the fuel tank or, after the engine is started and warmed up, into the air intake to be burned in the engine.
Carbon monoxide (CO) – A product of incomplete combustion, inhaled carbon monoxide reduces the blood’s ability to carry oxygen; overexposure (carbon monoxide poisoning) may be fatal. (Carbon monoxide persistently binds to hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying chemical in red blood cells, where oxygen (O2) would temporarily bind; the bonding of CO excludes O2 and also reduces the ability of the hemoglobin to release already-bound oxygen, on both counts rendering the red blood cells ineffective. Recovery is by the slow release of bound CO and the body’s production of new hemoglobin—a healing process—so full recovery from moderate to severe [but nonfatal] CO poisoning takes hours or days. Removing a person from a CO-poisoned atmosphere to fresh air stops the injury but does not yield prompt recovery, unlike the case where a person is removing from an asphyxiating atmosphere [i.e. one deficient in oxygen]. Toxic effects delayed by days are also common.)
NOx – Generated when nitrogen in the air reacts with oxygen at the high temperature and pressure inside the engine. NOx is a precursor to smog and acid rain. NOx is the sum of NO and NO2. NO2 is extremely reactive. NOx production is increased when an engine runs at its most efficient (i.e. hottest) operating point, so there tends to be a natural tradeoff between efficiency and control of NOx emissions.
Particulate matter – Soot or smoke made up of particles in the micrometre size range: Particulate matter causes negative health effects, including but not limited to respiratory disease and cancer. Very fine particulate matter has been linked to cardiovascular disease.
Sulfur oxide (SOx) – A general term for oxides of sulfur, which are emitted from motor vehicles burning fuel containing sulfur. Reducing the level of fuel sulfur reduces the level of Sulfur oxide emitted from the tailpipe.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) – Organic compounds which typically have a boiling point less than or equal to 250 °C; for example chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and formaldehyde. Volatile organic compounds are a subsection of Hydrocarbons that are mentioned separately because of their dangers to public health.
Netflix is more popular than cable TV and YouTube, according to a survey from financial service company Cowen & Co., reports Variety. The survey, conducted in May, asked which platforms respondents used most often to view video content on TV. 27% of respondents answered Netflix, followed by 20% for basic cable, 18% for broadcast TV and 11% for YouTube. Among those aged 18-34, Netflix scored 40%, followed by YouTube at 17%, basic cable at 12.6% Hulu at 7.6% and broadcast TV at 7.5%.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Netflix, Inc. is an American over-the-top media services provider, headquartered in Los Gatos, California. Founded in 1997 by Reed Hastings and Marc Randolph in Scotts Valley, California, the company’s primary business is its subscription-based streaming service, which offers online streaming of a library of films and television programs including those produced in-house.
Netflix’s initial business model included DVD sales and rental by mail, although Hastings jettisoned DVD sales about a year after Netflix’s founding to focus on the DVD rental business. In 2007, Netflix expanded its business with the introduction of streaming media, while retaining the DVD and Blu-ray rental service. The company expanded internationally, with streaming made available to Canada in 2010 and continued growing its streaming service from there; by January 2016, Netflix services operated in over 190 countries – it is available worldwide except Mainland China, Syria, North Korea and Crimea.
Netflix entered the content-production industry in 2012, debuting its first series, Lilyhammer. It has greatly expanded the production of both film and television series since then, offering “Netflix Original” content through its online library of films and television. Netflix released an estimated 126 original series or films in 2016, more than any other network or cable channel.
As of April 2018, Netflix had 125 million total subscribers worldwide, including 56.71 million in the United States. Their efforts to produce new content, secure the rights for additional content, and diversify through 190 countries has resulted in the company racking up billions in long-term debt: $21.9 billion as of September 2017, up from $16.8 billion from the same time the previous year, although only $6.5 billion of this is long-term debt; the remaining are long-term obligations.
Netflix’s headquarters are located at 121 Albright Way, Los Gatos, California, United States. They also have other offices in the Netherlands, Brazil, India, Japan, and South Korea.